Friday, May 26, 2023

The U.S. National Strategy to Counter Antisemitism

"Six years ago, Neo-Nazis marched from the shadows through Charlottesville, Virginia, chanting, “Jews will not replace us.” With torches in hand, they spewed the same antisemitic bile and hate that were heard across Europe in the 1930s. What happened in Charlottesville—the horror of that moment, the violence that followed, and the threat it represented for American democracy— drove me to run for President. The very soul of our Nation was hanging in the balance. It still is today.

Repeated episodes of hate—including numerous attacks on Jewish Americans—have since followed Charlottesville, shaking our moral conscience as Americans and challenging the values for which we stand as a Nation. That is why I convened the first-ever United We Stand Summit at the White House in September 2022: to bring communities from across the country together to combat hate in all its forms—including the persistent scourge of antisemitism—that has long plagued our Nation. We must stand united—regardless of our backgrounds and beliefs—to affirm that an attack on any one group of us is an attack on us all and that hate can have no safe harbor in America.

Together, we must acknowledge and confront the reality that antisemitism is rising, both at home and abroad. Loud voices are normalizing this venom, but we must never allow it to become normal. Antisemitism threatens not only the Jewish community, but all Americans. People who peddle these antisemitic conspiracy theories and fuel racial, ethnic, and religious hatred against Jews also target other communities—including Black and brown Americans; Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders; LGBTQI+ individuals; Muslim Americans; women and girls; and so many others. Our intelligence agencies have determined that domestic terrorism rooted in white supremacy—including antisemitism—is the greatest terrorist threat to our Homeland today.

By seeking to turn the masses against the few, by scapegoating and dehumanizing others—and most of all—by stoking violence, the perpetrators of hate aim to upend our most cherished values and undermine our efforts to build a culture of respect, peace, and cooperation. Protecting the Jewish community from antisemitism is essential to our broader fight against all forms of hate, bigotry, and bias—and to our broader vision of a thriving, inclusive, and diverse democracy.

History teaches that hate never fully goes away; it only hides until it is given just a little oxygen. That is why we must confront antisemitism early and aggressively whenever and wherever it emerges from the darkness.."

Thursday, May 25, 2023

Cool for the Summer: Keep Your Favorite Salads Chilled

"At your next picnic, let the spotlight shine on your food — not on party crashers like Salmonella or Listeria. When temperatures rise and food safety steps aren’t followed, cold dishes at a cookout are at risk for unsafe bacteria levels. Avoid foodborne illness by following these steps:

Clean: Remember to clean and sanitize all dishes and utensils used to make your salad and wash your hands before and after food prep.

Separate: Use different cutting boards, plates and utensils to avoid spreading bacteria when preparing your raw foods and ready-to-eat cold dishes.

Cook: Make sure the main meat or poultry ingredients used in cold salads (egg salad, chicken salad, etc.) are cooked to safe internal temperatures before mixing:

  • Cook eggs to 160 F.
  • Cook chicken to 165 F.

Although most cold salads use mayonnaise, the danger of foodborne illness lies with the main ingredient, such as eggs or chicken. Make sure they are cooked and chilled at the proper temperature. If you use homemade mayonnaise, follow these guidelines.

Chill: Avoid the Danger Zone (temperatures between 40 F and 140 F) by refrigerating perishable food within two hours — one hour if it’s a hot day (above 90 F). Keep cold foods at an internal temperature of 40 F or below by nestling food in ice or keeping food in a cooler.."
Keep Salads Chilled 

Tuesday, May 23, 2023

Social Media and Youth Mental Health

"This Advisory describes the current evidence on the impacts of social media on the mental health of children and adolescents. It states that we cannot conclude social media is sufficiently safe for children and adolescents and outlines immediate steps we can take to mitigate the risk of harm to children and adolescents."

Social Media and Mental He

Disaser Feeding Tips

"Feeding Your Child Safely During a Disaster

Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, wildfires, earthquakes, and tornados, can make it hard for parents and caregivers to feed their infants and young children safely. Follow these tips to feed your child safely when disaster strikes.

For Parents and Caregivers

In the event of a natural disaster, be prepared for challenges, which may include power outages, unhealthy living spaces, and unsafe water. Always check with local authorities on the status of the drinking water and follow boil water advisories. The following tips provide specific information for how to feed your young child safely during an emergency.


If you need help obtaining nutritious food, see resources at USDA Nutrition Assistance Program. You can also call the USDA National Hunger Hotline at 1–866–3–HUNGRY or 1–877–8–HAMBRE to find resources such as meal sites, food banks, and other social services.

Breastfeeding remains the best infant feeding option in a natural disaster situation. Breast milk helps protect babies from diseases such as diarrhea and respiratory infections and provides the calories and nutrients babies need. This protection is especially important during natural disasters when contaminated water and unsanitary environments can increase the risk of disease. Before a disaster happens, breastfeeding mothers can make a plan [PDF-1.3 MB] and be prepared.

  • Wash your hands before feeding your infant. If soap and safe water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
  • Learn how to express breast milk by hand. If there is a power outage, you may not be able to use your electric breast pump.
  • Continue breastfeeding in emergencies.
  • During and after a disaster, stay with your child. Staying together makes it much easier to continue breastfeeding.."
    Disaster feeding and Children 

Summer Swim Safety

"Drowning is preventable. Follow these key prevention steps:

  • Properly fence home swimming pools,
  • learn how to swim and teach children how to swim,
  • supervise children closely and constantly when they are in or near water, and
  • wear a properly fitted life jacket as these steps can all reduce the risk of drowning.

    Drowning Is a Leading Cause of Death for Children

    Keeping children safe in and around water, especially as Memorial Day Weekend kicks off, allows everyone to enjoy summer water activities. Drowning is the leading cause of death for children 1 to 4 years old, and the second leading cause of unintentional injury death for children 5 to 14 years old. Drowning can happen in seconds and is often silent. It can happen to anyone, any time there is access to water. This includes pools and lakes, and also smaller water bodies like bathtubs and water-filled buckets. However, drowning is preventable..."
    Swim Safety 

Saturday, May 20, 2023

Criminal Prohibitions on Leaks and Other Disclosures of Classified Defense Information

"High-profile leaks and disclosures of protected government information have prompted frequent congressional interest in the criminal penalties for disclosing government secrets. In one recent case, a U.S. Air National Guardsman allegedly posted photographs on social media of documents that, according to media outlets, contained classified information about the Russia-Ukraine war and other international affairs.

No single statute criminalizes all unauthorized disclosure of protected government information. Rather, the legal framework is based on a complex and often overlapping set of statutes or individual provisions within statutes, which are outlined in this report. Criminal prosecutions arising from unauthorized disclosures frequently focus on the Espionage Act, with specific charges varying based on certain factors. Successful prosecutions can result in punishments ranging from severe penalties and imprisonment for “classic spying” cases (when an individual collects information in an effort to provide aid to a foreign government) to less severe penalties for cases such as failing to report that protected information has been mishandled or lost.

Historically, the United States has prosecuted under the Espionage Act and related statutes (1) individuals with access to classified information (and a corresponding obligation to protect it) who make it available to foreign agents and (2) foreign agents who obtain classified information unlawfully while present in the United States. The United States has also prosecuted individuals claiming an altruistic desire to expose protected information to the public based on their belief that the public good favors transparency into particular government activities. While not every prosecution against an alleged “whistleblower” has been successful, no individual has been acquitted on the grounds that the public interest in the leaked information was so significant as to justify an otherwise unlawful disclosure.

Some have questioned whether the Espionage Act covers only initial disclosure of protected information or whether it also criminalizes the receipt and publication of that information by third parties, such as the press. The United States has never prosecuted a traditional news organization for receiving and publicizing leaked information, but it has extended its prosecution efforts to the individual not responsible for the initial disclosure. This report examines prosecutions of individuals who leak information to the press or policy organizations, such as lobbying groups and think tanks, as well as civil and criminal actions that have been brought against the recipients of leaked information.

Prosecutions and legal proceedings arising out of leaks may also implicate First Amendment issues regarding freedom of speech and freedom of the press. At the same time, exposure of protected information may harm U.S. national security. Because these cases can raise First Amendment concerns regarding freedom of speech and freedom of the press, the constitutional framework relevant to prosecutions and other legal proceedings filed as a result of leaked classified information is also analyzed in this report, discussing ways Members of Congress who are evaluating criminal prohibitions on disclosures of protected information may seek to balance these competing interests within the constitutional framework..."
Leaked Classified Defense Information 

Thursday, May 18, 2023

Repository of Historical Gun Laws

[Duke Center for Firearms Law]
"Welcome to the Repository of Historical Gun Laws, a searchable database of gun laws from the medieval age to 1776 in England and from the colonial era to the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. This Repository is intended as a resource for scholars and practitioners interested in historical laws concerning firearms and other similar weapons. Although the Repository seeks to be substantial, it is not comprehensive. Conscientious users of this Repository should supplement their results with further legal and historical research.

If you have questions or comments about the Repository, or would like to request underlying PDFs for any laws in the Repository, please contact Ethan Margolis at:

To browse the full archive of laws in our Repository, please click here..."
Gun Laws 

Wednesday, May 17, 2023

Congressional Record (Bound) back to 1873

[Library of Congress Blog]

"Congressional Record Now Back to 1873 in

In April, Robert shared the news about how we enhanced the display of historical bill text on One of the longer term projects we have been working on, also related to historical material, has been to add the Bound Congressional Record to Robert announced that our first Congress with the Bound Congressional Record, which is the 103rd, was added to the site in the summer of 2020. Since then, we have regularly been adding, testing, and reviewing additional Congresses all the way back to when the Bound Congressional Record started. We now have the Bound Congressional Record from the 46th to 103rd Congress on the site, which covers 1873 to 1994.

Now if you are browsing the Senate’s website and see something like Landmark Legislation: Civil Rights Act of 1875 you can find out more on That item mentions the date February 27, 1875. You can go to and find those debates. Scroll to page 1861 and look for the term “Civil Rights” to learn more.  Keep reading to the end of the section to see the final vote..."
Congressional Record 

Tuesday, May 9, 2023

Appearances by Sitting U.S. Supreme Court Justices at Congressional Committee and Subcommittee Hearings (1960-2022)

"This Insight provides historical information and analysis related to appearances by sitting U.S. Supreme Court Justices at congressional committee and subcommittee hearings during the period 1960 through 2022 (confirmation hearings are excluded from the analysis). Congressional hearings are used, generally, by committees and subcommittees “to obtain information and opinions on proposed legislation, conductan investigation, or evaluate/oversee the activities of a government department.” Hearings “may also bepurely exploratory in nature, providing testimony and data about topics of current interest.”

It has not been uncommon, at least since 1960, for sitting Supreme Court Justices to appear at congressional committee and subcommittee hearings. Justices made such appearances at least once every year from 1960 through 2011. Supreme Court Justices last appeared at a subcommittee hearing in the House in 2019, when Justices Samuel Alito and Elena Kagan testified about the Supreme Court’s budget request for FY2020. Sitting Justices last appeared at a Senate hearing in 2011, when Justices StephenBreyer and Antonin Scalia testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee regarding their views about the constitutional role of federal judges.

The data presented below were compiled from information collected by CRS using ProQuestCongressional.

How many appearances did Supreme Court Justices make at committee or subcommittee hearings from 1960 through 2022?

CRS identified 93 committee or subcommittee hearings held from 1960 through 2022 that included an appearance by at least one sitting Supreme Court Justice. Of the 93 hearings, 64 (69%) were held by a House committee or subcommittee and 29 (31%) were held by a Senate committee or subcommittee. CRS identified no instance of a sitting Justice appearing before a joint committee.

Collectively, the 93 committee and subcommittee hearings during this period featured a total of 175 appearances by sitting Supreme Court Justices (most hearings included appearances by at least two Justices). By chamber, this included 120 appearances in the House and 55 appearances in the Senate.

Of the 24 Justices who have served on the Court since 1960, excluding those currently serving, 15 (63%) appeared at a congressional committee or subcommittee hearing on at least one occasion.

Of the nine current Justices, three (33%) have appeared at a committee or subcommittee hearing on at least one occasion. Justice Clarence Thomas has appeared 10 times, last appearing in 2010. Justice Alito has appeared twice, last appearing in 2019 with Justice Kagan (who has appeared once)..."
Supreme Court Justices and Congressional Committees 

Outdoor Play and Safety

"Outdoor Play and Safety for Children in ECE

Being active and playing outdoors are an important part of childhood. Playing outside can have many benefits for children’s healthy development and can help them develop healthy bodies and healthy minds. Outdoor time provides opportunities for children in early care and education (ECE) programs to enjoy the outdoors, but spending time outside can also introduce illness and injury, dangers associated with water, and exposure to the sun and heat. ECE providers can help to keep children safe while they learn and stay active outside.

Benefits of Outdoor Play in ECE Settings

Healthy Bodies

An early care and education provider and young children playing outdoors with water toys

Outdoor play is a great way to get children to move and stay physically active, which protects their health in childhood and throughout life. For ECE programs, going outside can mean having more space to jump, run, climb, and have fun. Children learn through free play and need opportunities to take risks, test their limits, and learn new skills. Being physically active by playing outdoors and in nature can help children develop strong bodies and meet important developmental milestones for movement and physical development. Time spent in bright sunlight can also reduce nearsightedness.

Healthy Minds

Moving and staying active are important for having a healthy brain. Playing and exploring the outdoors can give children new experiences. When the weather is not too cold or too hot, ECE programs can take children to the playground or on walks to look at new sights and experience new sounds. Being outdoors often enables children to try different games and practice skills that help them meet milestones in learning, language, and emotions. Studies show that time spent playing outside can help children by improving their grades, attention spans, and behavior.

Ways to Keep Children Safe and Healthy While Playing Outside

Playing outside comes with many benefits, but it also comes with possible risks from exposure to sun, heat, and bugs, and from health and safety hazards associated with playgrounds and water play. By properly planning outside playtime, ECE providers can promote ways to stay healthy and safe outdoors.."
Outdoor Play 

Cancer and Women

"You can take steps every day to lower your chance of getting certain kinds of cancer.

Most cancers take years to develop. Many things can affect your chance of getting cancer. Things that raise your chance of getting cancer are called risk factors.

You can’t control some risk factors, like getting older. But you can control many others. In fact, there are things you can do every day to avoid getting cancer. Two of the most important things you can do are making healthy choices and getting the screening tests that are right for you.

Healthy Choices

Quitting smoking is one of the best ways to lower your cancer risk. Smoking can cause cancer almost anywhere in the body. If you don’t smoke, make sure you stay away from other people’s smoke.

The link between smoking and cancer is well-known. But you may be surprised by other things that can lead to cancer.

  • Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun or artificial sources like a tanning bed, booth, or sunlamp can cause skin cancer, the most common cancer.
  • Drinking alcohol raises your risk of getting six kinds of cancer, including breast cancer and colorectal cancer.
  • About 40% of all cancers are associated with overweight and obesity.."
    Cancer and Women 

Healthy Living with Arthritis

"Arthritis is increasing in the U.S. Subscribe to the Healthy Living with Arthritis (HLWA) podcast to learn about proven programs to help manage arthritis.

With nearly 59 million U.S. adults diagnosed, arthritis is a leading cause of disability in the United States. People with arthritis can learn to manage their symptoms and connect to programs that will help them lead active, healthy lives.

More people than ever may benefit from interactive and easy-to-access arthritis education resources. CDC’s Healthy Living with Arthritis Podcast Series informs people living with arthritis and other chronic conditions about programs that can help them improve and manage their symptoms. It also discusses the benefits of healthy behaviors such as physical activity.

The latest episode of Healthy Living with Arthritis is available now during Arthritis Awareness Month. This episode focuses on a proven pain management program recognized by CDC, the Chronic Pain Self-Management Program (CPSMP). This episode also features a CDC arthritis expert who discusses the program in depth and provides additional resources for finding program information and enrolling in in-person and virtual workshop offerings.

CPSMP meets for 2.5 hours per week for 6 weeks in convenient community locations (e.g., YMCA, community center, etc.) and is also available virtually. This program teaches skills for effectively managing chronic pain associated with chronic conditions, like arthritis, back pain, multiple sclerosis, sickle cell, and Crohn’s disease..."
Arthritis Management 

Thursday, May 4, 2023

Marijuana and Youth

"Marijuana and Youth: The Impact of Marijuana Use on Teen Health and Wellbeing

National Cannabis Awareness Month is observed in April to increase awareness and education about marijuana. While scientists are still learning about the risks and benefits of using marijuana, we know that marijuana use can harm a teen’s health and wellbeing.

Fast Facts

  • In 2022, 30.7% of 12th graders reported using marijuana in the past year, and 6.3% reported using marijuana daily in the past 30 days.1
  • Compared to teens who do not use marijuana, teens who use marijuana may be less likely to graduate from high school or college.2,3
  • Research shows that marijuana use during teen years can harm the brain.4,5
drugs and booze at a house party

How Does Marijuana Use Affect Teen Health?

The teen brain is actively developing and continues to develop until around age 25. Marijuana use is associated with increased risk for the following issues4:


    • Harm to brain health. Marijuana use beginning in teen years or younger may affect brain development which may impair thinking, memory, and learning.
    • Mental health issues. Marijuana use has been linked to depression and social anxiety in adults.4 People that use marijuana are more likely to develop temporary psychosis (hallucinations, not knowing what is real, and paranoia) and long-lasting mental disorders, including schizophrenia.

      Schizophrenia is a type of mental illness where people might see or hear things that aren’t there. The association between marijuana and schizophrenia is stronger in people who start using marijuana frequently at an early age.10
    • Impaired driving. Driving while impaired by marijuana is dangerous and illegal. Marijuana affects reaction time, coordination, and concentration—skills required for safe driving.11
    • Increased potential for marijuana use disorder. People who begin using marijuana before the age of 18 are at increased risk of developing marijuana use disorder..."
      Marijuana and Youth 

Monday, May 1, 2023

Emergency Water Supply

"During a water-related emergency or outbreak, safe drinking water may not be available. Prepare for an emergency by creating and storing a supply of water that will meet your family’s needs.

Bottled Water

Unopened, commercially bottled water is the safest and most reliable source of water in an emergency. If you do not have bottled water, you can make your water safe to drink by following the instructions on CDC’s Making Water Safe in an Emergency page and using clean containers to collect and store your water.

How Much Emergency Water to Store
  • Store at least 1 gallon of water per person per day for 3 days for drinking and sanitation.
    Try to store a 2-week supply if possible.
  • Consider storing more water than this for pregnant women, people who are sick, pets, or if living in a hot climate.
Other Considerations
  • Observe the expiration date for store-bought water.
  • If you are filling containers with water to store, replace the water every 6 months.
  • Store a bottle of unscented liquid household chlorine bleach (label should say it contains between 5% and 9% of sodium hypochlorite) to disinfect your water, if necessary, and to use for general cleaning and sanitizing.
Choosing a Container
Image of different sized water containers

If you are filling containers with water to store, it is best to use food-grade water storage containers. FDA-approved food-grade storage containers will not transfer toxic substances into the water. They can be found at surplus or camping supply stores. Contact the storage container manufacturer if you are not sure whether the container is food-grade. If you are not able to use a food-grade water storage container, be sure the container you choose:

  • Has a top that can be closed tightly.
  • Is made of durable, unbreakable materials (not glass).
  • Has a narrow neck or opening, if possible, so water can be poured out.

DO NOT USE containers that were previously used to hold liquid or solid toxic chemicals, such as bleach or pesticides..."
Emergency Water 

Friday, April 28, 2023

Mapping IRS Tax Return Filings Reveals Marked Differences in the Distribution of Income and Dependents

"Most Americans filed their taxes recently, not only providing the federal government with funds needed to operate but also providing the IRS (and ultimately the public) with data about the reported amounts and sources of income, their number of dependents, and other factors that shape the distribution of financial means across the country.

For the U.S. as a whole, the average adjusted gross income (AGI) reported on federal income tax returns filed in 2021 increased to $76,539. This reflects income received during 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Filings during 2021 showed AGI up only slightly from $75,758 during the previous year. This does not adjust for inflation.

Reported income, however, varied markedly across states and counties. Aside from D.C., Massachusetts had the highest average reported income at $101,863, followed by Connecticut at $101,589 and Washington State at $95,584. The lowest AGI with only half that of the top three states was Mississippi at $50,876. West Virginia had the second lowest income at $53,461 while New Mexico returns reported on average an AGI of $56,383 which was the next lowest.

AGI does not tell the whole story, of course. Income variation by county does not take into account the cost of living, which is considerably higher in places like New York City and Los Angeles than in rural areas. Nonetheless, mapping the distribution of AGI by county shows where concentrations of lower-income and higher-income tax filers reside..."
Tax Filings and Income Distribution