Tuesday, July 2, 2024

Older and wiser, but not richer: The gender pay gap for older workers

" A graph using gold coins as bars to highlight the comparable pay of men to women. Text: At Older Ages, Women are Paid About 75 Cents for Every Dollar Paid to Men. Median earnings in th epast 12 months for full time, full year, civilian employees ages 20 and older. Data: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2022, IPUMS.

Older women are losing out

President Biden recently identified older workers as the “Backbone of the Nation.”
While that may be the case, older women workers – who comprise 47% of the labor force ages 55 and older – are plagued by a gender wage gap that is even larger than the one their younger counterparts experience.

Among workers ages 50 or older, women working full-time and year-round are paid about 75 cents for each dollar their male counterparts make. 

In 2022, the most recent year for which data are available, women 50-59 working full-time, year-round were paid about $56,000 annually – $18,300 less than their male counterparts. Women 60-69 were paid about $18,800 less than men in their 60s and women 70 or older were paid about $16,000 less than men in their 70s. To put this in perspective, among people ages 20-29, women were paid a median of $39,200 and men a median of $42,100 – an annual difference of about $3,000.

A stacked bar graph showing the median earnings in the past 12 months for full time, full year, civilian employees ages 20 and older. Text: The Gender Wage Gap is Larger for Older Workers. Data: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2022, IPUMS.

These annual wage losses add up. Estimates suggest that over the course of their careers, women lose an average of nearly $400,000relative to white non-Hispanic men due to gender and racial wage gaps. Hispanic and Native American and Pacific Islander women make $1 million less than white non-Hispanic men, while Black women make nearly $900,000 less. These earnings deficits mean less purchasing power for women and their families and less financial security for older women (65+), 11.2% of whom live in poverty. In addition, lower wages can impact Social Security benefits and other sources of retirement income such as IRAs and 401(k)s.

Research from the Women’s Bureau and the U.S. Census Bureau shows that 70% of the gender pay gap remains unexplained after adjusting for gender differences in education, occupation, industry, work experience, hours worked and other worker characteristics. This remaining unexplained wage gap is due to a combination of unobservable worker characteristics and discrimination.

Solutions

Salary history bans are one solution that can help alleviate pay disparities. The federal government now bans the use of non-federal salary history to determine wages for federal employees, and the Biden-Harris Administration has proposed a similar rule for federal contractors.

Given the outsized role that occupational segregation plays in the gender wage gap, programs that provide pathways for women into high-paying nontraditional occupations, such as the Women’s Bureau’s Women in Apprenticeship and Nontraditional Occupations (WANTO) grant program, can help reduce pay disparities and increase economic security.

Furthermore, eliminating discrimination is key to closing gender wage gaps. The federal government is playing a role: Since Fiscal Year 2022, the Department of Labor’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Department of Justice have collectively recovered over $20 million in monetary relief for women who have experienced pay discrimination in the workplace.
Older Workers and Gender Pay 

Friday, June 28, 2024

Childcare Costs, Reduced Work, and Financial Strain: New Estimates for Low-Income Families

"According to new survey data from the Federal Reserve’s 2023 Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking (“SHED”), low-income families are more likely to reduce work to care for young children while high income families are more likely to pay for care.[i] These differing decisions have financial consequences, as families who reduce work are less well off financially than those who are not reducing work. Although families who pay for care are better off overall, child care costs are still a notable expense. On average, families who pay for care pay about half as much for that care as for housing each month. This analysis suggests how government and private sector support for child care might vary by income

Families handle care responsibilities differently across income levels

As shown in Figure 1, families at different income levels make different decisions about how to care for their children. Households with young children and that make less than $75,000 per year are more likely to provide care themselves, with about 35 percent of these households reducing work to care for children. As income rises, the share of households using paid child care rises – from 17 percent for those making less than $24,000 to 41 percent for those making more than $150,000. The highest earners are unlikely to reduce work to care for children, without only about 14 percent of households doing so.."
Childcare Costs 

Cars & Consumer Data: On Unlawful Collection & Use

"Some say the car a person drives can say a lot about them. As cars get “connected,” this turns out to be truer than many people might have realized. While connectivity can let drivers do things like play their favorite internet radio stations or unlock their car with an app, connected cars can also collect a lot of data about people. This data could be sensitive—such as biometric information or location—and its collection, use, and disclosure can threaten consumers’ privacy and financial welfare.

Connected cars have been on the FTC’s radar for years. The FTC highlighted concerns related to connected cars as part of an “Internet of Things” workshop held in 2013, followed by a 2015 report. In 2018, the FTC hosted a connected cars workshop highlighting issues ranging from unexpected secondary uses of data to security risks. The agency has also published guidance to consumers reminding them to wipe the data on their cars before selling them—much as anyone would when trying to resell a computer or smart phone.

Over the years, privacy advocates have raised concerns about the vast amount of data that could be collected from cars, such as biometric, telematic, geolocation, video, and other personal information. News reports have also suggested that data from connected cars could be used to stalk people or affect their insurance rates. Many have noted that when any company collects a large amount of sensitive data, it can pose national security issues if that data is shared with foreign actors.."
Cars and Consumer Data 

Wednesday, June 19, 2024

Heat Risk Check

"Home

Hot days can affect anyone. If you are pregnant, are a child or teen with asthma, or have a heart condition or other chronic health conditions, heat can make your health worse.

Enter your zip code below to get the HeatRisk for this week and actions you can take to keep you and your family safe.

Get Your Local HeatRisk
"

Heat Risk 

Tuesday, June 11, 2024

Legal Definitions: A Research Guide for Congressional Staff

"This report is designed to introduce congressional staff to examples of legal and nonlegal sources, including statutes, legislation, and dictionaries, for researching legal definitions. It includes governmental sources, such as the United States Code (U.S. Code), the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), and congressional legislation. Proprietary information sources are also included..."
Legal Definitions 

Monday, June 10, 2024

2024 Kids Count Data Book

"This year’s publication continues to present national and state data across four domains — economic well-being, education, health and family and community — and ranks states in overall child well-being. The report includes pre-pandemic figures as well as more recent statistics, and shares the latest information of its kind available.

THE CURRENT STATE OF CHILD CARE IN THE UNITED STATES

America's child care system is broken. Safe, reliable child care has largely been inaccessible and unaffordable for too many Americans. Disparities between who can and can't afford child care reflect long-standing structural inequities in the United States. Shift workers, single parents, student parents and families of color are particularly affected by the failings of the child care system. Children are deprived of nurturing care, and caregivers are prevented from earning money to meet basic needs.

The child care system's inadequacies hinder family economic mobility and perpetuate generational wealth gaps. Affordability impacts accessibility, and the cost of child care has tripled since the publication of the first KIDS COUNT Data Book in 1990. The inability to access care can force caregivers to have to leave work early, be late for work or miss days entirely. Even more troubling: Almost a quarter of parents report being fired because of difficulties accessing child care. It's a cycle: Child care is inaccessible, the parent loses their job, which makes affording child care to secure a new job even more difficult.."
Kids Count Data 

Wednesday, May 22, 2024

Wisconsin 2022 Census of Agriculture Highlights

"When people think about Wisconsin agriculture, they immediately think of Wisconsin as a leader in dairy farms and cheese production. As of December 31, 2022, Wisconsin had 6,216 dairy farms, and in 2022 Wisconsin produced just over 5.2 billion pounds of cheese.

But results from the 2022 Census of Agriculture show that Wisconsin agriculture offers much more than dairy products and leads the country in several diverse categories.

According to the 2022 Census of Agriculture, Wisconsin is #1 in the following categories:

  • ginseng acres
  • beet acres for vegetable processing
  • Chinese pea acres
  • cranberry acres
  • snap bean acres
  • corn for silage acres
  • milk goats
  • mink

In addition, with just over 234,000 acres harvested for vegetables, Wisconsin leads its surrounding neighboring states in vegetable acres harvested.

Here’s a little more about Wisconsin ag: the state has 58,521 farms, 13.7 million acres of land in farms, and about 105,920 producers. In 2022, Wisconsin farms produced $16.7 billion of agricultural products and ranked 10th among states for value of products produced. Just over 26% of Wisconsin producers in 2022 were new and beginning farmers.

Thank you, Wisconsin producers, for responding to the 2022 Census of Agriculture! Wisconsin ranked second in response rate to the ever important, once-every-five-year ag census.

Visit the Wisconsin state and county agriculture profiles for more 2022 Census of Agriculture data..."
2022 Wisconsin Census of Agriculture 

Wednesday, May 8, 2024

Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2022

"View or download the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2022 (published April 2024) report, developed by the U.S. Government to meet annual commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and also the Paris Agreement.

Read or download the entire Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2022 (PDF, 15.0 MB) or individual report chapters posted below. All data tables in the report will be available in CSV format soon.

Recommended citation: EPA (2024). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2022 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 430R-24004. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/inventory-us-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-sinks-1990-2022.

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more."
Greenhouse Gas Emissions 

Fentanyl Facts

"Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is up to 50 times stronger than heroin and 100 times stronger than morphine. It is a major contributor to fatal and nonfatal overdoses in the U.S.1

There are two types of fentanyl: pharmaceutical fentanyl and illegally made fentanyl. Both are considered synthetic opioids. Pharmaceutical fentanyl is prescribed by doctors to treat severe pain, especially after surgery and for advanced-stage cancer.

Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is 50 times stronger than heroin 100 times stronger than morphine

However, most recent cases of fentanyl-related overdose are linked to illegally made fentanyl, which is distributed through illegal drug markets for its heroin-like effect. It is often added to other drugs because of its extreme potency, which makes drugs cheaper, more powerful, more addictive, and more dangerous.

Illegally made fentanyl

Illicit drugs do not come with an ingredient list. Many contain deadly doses of fentanyl

Illegally made fentanyl (IMF) is available on the drug market in different forms, including liquid and powder1.

Powdered fentanyl looks just like many other drugs. It is commonly mixed with drugs like heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine and made into pills that are made to resemble other prescription opioids. Fentanyl-laced drugs are extremely dangerous, and many people may be unaware that their drugs are laced with fentanyl.

In its liquid form, IMF can be found in nasal sprays, eye drops, and dropped onto paper or small candies.

Fentanyl and Overdose

Fentanyl and other synthetic opioids are the most common drugs involved in overdose deaths.1 Even in small doses, it can be deadly. Over 150 people die every day from overdoses related to synthetic opioids like fentanyl.2

Drugs may contain deadly levels of fentanyl, and you wouldn’t be able to see it, taste it, or smell it. It is nearly impossible to tell if drugs have been laced with fentanyl unless you test your drugs with fentanyl test strips.

Test strips are inexpensive and typically give results within 5 minutes, which can be the difference between life or death. Even if the test is negative, take caution as test strips might not detect more potent fentanyl-like drugs, like carfentanil."."
Fentanyl
 

Monday, May 6, 2024

Justice Outcomes Explorer (JOE)

"The Justice Outcomes Explorer (JOE) is a Census Bureau experimental data product that measures the economic and health outcomes of people who have been involved with the criminal justice system.

Criminal justice involvement can include criminal charges, prison releases, and probation and parole sentences. Outcomes measured include employment, earnings, government program participation, and mortality.

JOE is a collaboration between the U.S. Census Bureau and the University of Michigan that uses Criminal Justice Administrative Records System (CJARS) data to better understand how people involved in the justice system reintegrate into society.

JOE covers criminal justice system involvement at any point between 2000 and 2020. Actual coverage of justice involvement depends on the coverage of agencies in the CJARS data, while coverage of outcomes depends on the availability of source data at the Census Bureau.

Data users can download JOE data below or interact directly with the JOE data using the data visualization tool hosted by the University of Michigan. The tool includes additional justice-related outcomes created from CJARS without Census Bureau data..."
Justice Outcomes Explorer 

Thursday, May 2, 2024

Elder Fraud, in Focus

"The FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center (or IC3) released the 2023 edition of its annual Elder Fraud Report on April 30, 2024.

Elder fraud complaints to the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center (or IC3) increased by 14% in 2023, and associated losses increased by about 11%, according to IC3’s 2023 Elder Fraud Report, released April 30.  

This annual publication provides statistics about incidents of elder fraud—or fraud that explicitly targets older Americans’ money or cryptocurrency—that are reported to IC3. The report aims to raise the public’s awareness of this issue and to prevent future and repeat incidents. 

“Combatting the financial exploitation of those over 60 years of age continues to be a priority of the FBI,” wrote FBI Assistant Director Michael D. Nordwall, who leads the Bureau’s Criminal Investigative Division, in the report. “Along with our partners, we continually work to aid victims and to identify and investigate the individuals and criminal organizations that perpetrate these schemes and target the elderly.” 

And elder fraud is probably a more insidious threat than the report shows. Many of these crimes likely go unreported, and, as the report states, “only about half” of the fraud scam complaints submitted to IC3 in 2023 included victims’ ages..."
Elder Fraud 

Saturday, April 27, 2024

Investigating Torture: FBI-HSI Investigation Leads to U.S. Citizen’s Conviction for Human Rights Violations in Iraq

"A U.S. Army veteran who established an illegal weapons facility in the Kurdistan region of Iraq— and who proceeded to both direct and engage in the torture of one of his employees—has been sentenced to 70 years in federal prison for those crimes and for additional crimes linked to his role at the facility.

Ross Roggio of Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, directed Kurdish soldiers kidnap an employee and hold him hostage at one of their military compounds for 39 days. There, Roggio and the Kurdish military personnel under his corrupt command physically and mentally abused the victim.

The victim was an Estonian national who worked at the factory, but who planned to blow the whistle on the illegal activities going on there, explained Supervisory Special Agent Crystal Stevens of the FBI’s International Human Rights Unit. In response, Roggio not only directed the victim’s abduction and abuse, but also forced fellow employees to watch the abuse as a deterrent tactic.

The abuses first came to light amid a preexisting counterproliferation case against Roggio. After investigators finished interviewing one former factory employee—a woman from Estonia—she turned over a cellphone audio recording of Roggio that implicated him for torture.."
US Tortue in Iraq 

Overtime Rule

"One of the basic principles of the American workplace is that a hard day’s work deserves a fair day’s pay. Simply put, every worker’s time has value. A cornerstone of that promise is the Fair Labor Standards Act’s (FLSA) requirement that when most workers work more than 40 hours in a week, they get paid more. The Department of Labor’s new overtime regulation is restoring and extending this promise for millions more lower-paid salaried workers in the U.S.

Overtime protections have been a critical part of the FLSA since 1938 and were established to protect workers from exploitation and to benefit workers, their families and our communities. Strong overtime protections help build America’s middle class and ensure that workers are not overworked and underpaid.

Some workers are specifically exempt from the FLSA’s minimum wage and overtime protections, including bona fide executive, administrative or professional employees. This exemption, typically referred to as the “EAP” exemption, applies when: 

1. An employee is paid a salary,  

2. The salary is not less than a minimum salary threshold amount, and 

3. The employee primarily performs executive, administrative or professional duties.

While the department increased the minimum salary required for the EAP exemption from overtime pay every 5 to 9 years between 1938 and 1975, long periods between increases to the salary requirement after 1975 have caused an erosion of the real value of the salary threshold, lessening its effectiveness in helping to identify exempt EAP employees.."
Overtime  

Healthier Foods, Healthier Minds

"..Right now, schools across our country are serving breakfasts and lunches to nearly 30 million children every day. Healthy school meals that represent the main source of nutrition for more than half of these students and are an essential part of the educational landscape — like teachers, books, or computers – helping to unlock kids’ full potential in and out of the classroom.

It is no surprise that poor nutrition and diet-related diseases are correlated with lower academic achievement, worse health outcomes, and more behavioral problems for kids. We recognize the tremendous work that educators and school nutrition professionals do every day to ensure our children are fueled to thrive. Healthy school meals are an essential element of a quality education and are a part of the solution to promote children’s health. We know that this work is not easy, which is why the Biden-Harris Administration has made historic investments to help schools provide healthy and nutritious meals to students.

School breakfast offers the jump start to a great day. It sets the tone for the rest of the day, especially for children. It’s why kids who eat breakfast have increased alertness and improved moods throughout the morning, fostering a better learning experience. What’s more, studies find that students who participate in school meal programs consume more whole grains, milk, fruits, and vegetables during mealtimes and enjoy better overall diet quality.

These pivotal updates we are making to school nutrition standards have been shaped by a host of stakeholders, including parents, devoted teachers, school administrators, school nutrition directors, and industry leaders, and are informed by the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

These new standards allow us to take the next step in putting kids’ health at the forefront by:

  • Reducing the amounts of added sugars in school meals, especially at breakfast.
  • Making it easier to offer healthy proteins at breakfast.
  • Scaling back sodium levels over time.
  • Continuing to emphasize fruits and vegetables, as well as whole grains, to give kids the right balance of nutrients for healthy, tasty meals..."
    Healthier Foods 

Wednesday, April 17, 2024

United States Statutes at Large

"About the United States Statutes at Large

The United States Statutes at Large, typically referred to as the Statutes at Large, is the permanent collection of all laws and resolutions enacted during each session of Congress. The Statutes at Large is prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR), National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) .

Under the provisions of 1 U.S.C. 112, the printed edition of the Statutes at Large is legal evidence of the laws, concurrent resolutions, proclamations by the President, and proposed and ratified amendments to the Constitution. Read More

Note that appendix volumes are presented with the corresponding main volume: 68A, 70A, 76A, 77A

Browse the United States Statutes at Large.."
Statutes at Large