Thursday, March 21, 2019

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2017


"In 2017, the overall unemployment rate for the United States was 4.4 percent; however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, the unemployment rates were higher than the national rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives (7.8 percent), Blacks or African Americans (7.5 percent), people categorized as being of Two or More Races (6.7 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (6.1 percent). Jobless rates were lower than the national rate for Asians (3.4 percent) and Whites (3.8 percent). The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, at 5.1 percent, was higher than the 4.2-percent rate for non-Hispanics.

Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Because of their relatively small sample sizes, estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables..."
Labor force

Women in the Labor Force: 2017

"In 2017, 57.0 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This was slightly above the 56.8 percent who participated in 2016, but still 3 percentage points below the peak of 60.0 percent in 1999. By comparison, the labor force participation rate for men was 69.1 percent in 2017, essentially unchanged from the previous year and 17.5 percentage points below its peak of 86.6 percent in 1948.

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. After reaching a peak in 1999, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline. This decline accelerated following the Great Recession of 2007–09 until the participation rate hit a recent low in 2015 at 56.7 percent..."
Women labor

Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 2017

"Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 2017 is available in one downloadable file containing all 26 data tables for census regions and divisions and states (XLSX), as well as individual tables below.."
Employment & unemployment

Occupational Outlook Handbook: 2019

"The OOH can help you find career information on duties, education and training, pay, and outlook for hundreds of occupations..."
Occupational outlook handbook

Digest of Education Statistics: 2017

"The Introduction provides a brief overview of current trends in American education, highlighting key data that are presented in more detail later in this volume. Topics outlined include the participation of students, teachers, and faculty in U.S. educational institutions; the performance of U.S. elementary/secondary students overall and in comparison to students in other countries; the numbers of high school graduates and postsecondary degrees; and the amounts of expenditures on education at the elementary/secondary and postsecondary levels.

In fall 2017, about 76.4 million people were enrolled in American schools and colleges (table 105.10). About 4.6 million people were employed as elementary and secondary school teachers or as college faculty, in full‐time equivalents (FTE). Other professional, administrative, and support staff at educational institutions totaled 5.5 million FTE employees. All data for 2017 in this Introduction are projected, except for data on educational attainment. Some data for other years are projected or estimated as noted. In discussions of historical trends, different time periods and specific years are cited, depending on the timing of important changes as well as the availability of relevant data..."

Education Statistics

Projections of Education Statistics to 2027


"Projections of Education Statistics to 2027 is the 46th in a series of publications initiated in 1964. This publication provides national-level data on enrollment, teachers, high school graduates, and expenditures at the elementary and secondary level, and enrollment and degrees at the postsecondary level for the past 15 years and projections to the year 2027. For the 50 states and the District of Columbia, the tables, figures, and text contain data on projections of public elementary and secondary enrollment and public high school graduates to the year 2027. The methodology section describes models and assumptions used to develop national- and state-level projections.
Online Availability:

Education statistics

Smithsonian Year of Music 2019

"Virtually everybody engages with music, and we see this across eras and cultures. People work and relax with music, celebrate and mourn with music, court and fight with music. It provides a sense of well-being, of identity, and of community. Music is not only a reflection of human creativity and innovation that has led to a stunning diversity of styles and genres, but also a key method of communication and cross-cultural exchange and understanding.
The world’s musical heritage is richly represented at the Smithsonian’s museums and research centers. In addition to well-known centers for music, like the Musical Crossroads exhibition at the National Museum of African American History and Culture, or the 60,000 tracks available online through Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, music lives in unexpected places, such as the Landauer Collection of Aeronautical Sheet Music at the National Air and Space Museum Library, and the enormous collection of instruments from around the world at the National Museum of Natural History. Even the Smithsonian's Zoo studies and documents the songs of animals.

Smithsonian Year of Music

The Smithsonian Year of Music is an Institution-wide initiative to increase public engagement, advance understanding, and connect communities in Washington, D.C., across the nation, and around the globe. The Smithsonian Year of Music highlights and shares our vast musical holdings, bringing together our resources in history, art, culture, science, and education..."
Smithsonian music

World Water Day

"World Water Day, established by the United Nations (U.N.)External in 1993, is observed each year on March 22 to promote the responsible use of water and access to safe water for everyone. Around the world, 2.1 billion people live without safe drinking water at home.
Water is one of the Planet’s most valuable natural resources. Every day, people, animals, and plants depend on water for survival. Water is necessary for growing food, energy production, individual well-being, and global health. This year’s theme, “Leaving No One Behind,” reflects the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal for every person to have access to safe and affordable water.

Waterborne Disease Prevention Around the World

Clean and safe drinking water is essential to human life. Without it, waterborne diseases can spread, sickening and often killing adults and children, who are at higher risk of death. CDC’s Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) experts work to improve global access to safe water and proper sanitation, and to promote good hygiene. In addition, CDC works to prevent, detect, and respond to WASH emergencies, including life-threatening outbreaks of cholera, typhoid fever, and many other infectious diseases. CDC also works closely with other U.S. government agencies, foreign Ministries of Health, non-governmental organizations, U.N. agencies, private companies, and various international agencies to improve WASH conditions and reduce the spread of disease in homes and communities; in schools and healthcare facilities; and across international borders.
The U.N. established a Sustainable Development GoalExternal of improving access to safely managed water and sanitation services. Many people across the globe must rely on sources of drinking water that have been potentially contaminated with fecal matter, putting them at risk of contracting cholera, dysentery, typhoid and polio. According to the U.N., 2.3 billion people still do not have access to a basic sanitation facility, and 892 million people defecate outside because they do not have access to any type of toilet or latrine..."
World water day

Have You or a Family Member Had Colon Cancer?

"Having a family health history of colorectal (colon) cancer can make you more likely to get colorectal cancer yourself. If you have close family members with colorectal cancer, collect your family health history of colorectal and other cancers, and share this information with your doctor. Be sure to have any screening tests that your doctor recommends. If you have had colorectal cancer, make sure that your family members know about your diagnosis, especially if you have Lynch syndrome.

Why is it Important to Know Your Family Health History?

If you have a family health history of colorectal cancer, your doctor may consider your family health history when deciding which colorectal cancer screening might be right for you. For example, if you have a close family member who had colorectal cancer at a young age or have multiple close family members with colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend the following:
  • start screening at a younger age,
  • get screened more frequently,
  • use colonoscopy only instead of other tests, and
  • in some cases, have genetic counseling.
The genetic counselor may recommend genetic testing based on your family health history. When collecting your family health history, be sure to include your close relatives: parents, brothers, sisters, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, and nephews. List any cancers that each relative had and at what age he or she was diagnosed. For relatives who have died, list age and cause of death. You can use the My Family Health Portrait tool to collect your family health history.

What is Lynch Syndrome and Why is it Important to Know if You Have it?

In some cases, colorectal cancer is caused by an inherited genetic condition called Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or HNPCC. About 3% (1 in 30) of colorectal cancer cases are due to Lynch syndrome. People with Lynch syndrome are much more likely to develop colorectal cancer, especially at a younger age (before 50), and women with Lynch syndrome are much more likely to get endometrial (uterine) cancer. People with Lynch syndrome also have an increased chance of getting other cancers, including ovarian, stomach, liver, kidney, brain, and skin cancer. If you or your family members are found to have Lynch syndrome, your doctor can help you take steps to reduce your risk of getting cancer in the future or to find it early if you get it..."
Lynch syndrome

Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat

"Pink Eye is Common
Pink eye, or conjunctivitis, is one of the most common and treatable eye conditions in the world. It can affect both children and adults. It is an inflammation of the thin, clear tissue that lines the inside of the eyelid (conjunctiva) and the white part of the eyeball. This inflammation makes blood vessels more visible and gives the eye a pink or reddish color.

Pink Eye Symptoms

The symptoms may vary, but usually include:
  • Redness or swelling of the white of the eye or inside the eyelids
  • Increased amount of tears
  • Eye discharge which may be clear, yellow, white, or green
  • Itchy, irritated, and/or burning eyes
  • Gritty feeling in the eye
  • Crusting of the eyelids or lashes
  • Contact lenses that feel uncomfortable and/or do not stay in place on the eye

There are Four Main Causes of Pink Eye

There are four main causes of pink eye:
It can be difficult to determine the exact cause of pink eye because some signs and symptoms may be the same no matter the cause..."
Pink Eye

Monday, March 18, 2019

Getting enough sleep

"Are you getting enough sleep?


Getting enough sleep is important for people of all ages to stay in good health. Read more to learn how much sleep you need.
People will often cut back on their sleep for work, for family demands, or even to watch a good show on television. But if not getting enough sleep is a regular part of your routine, you may be at an increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and stroke, poor mental health, and even early death. Even one night of short sleep can affect you the next day. Not surprisingly, you’re more likely to feel sleepy. On top of that, you’re more likely to be in a bad mood, be less productive at work, and be involved in a motor vehicle crash.
How much sleep you need changes as you age. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society recommend:
Age Group
Recommended Hours of Sleep Per Day1,2
Infant
4-12 months
12-16 hours per 24 hours (including naps)
Toddler
1-2 years
11-14 hours per 24 hours (including naps)
Pre-school
3-5 years
10-13 hours per 24 hours (including naps)
School Age
6-12 years
9-12 hours per 24 hours
Teen
13-18 years
8-10 hours per 24 hours
Adult
18-60 years
7 or more hours per night

Habits to improve your sleep

There are some important habits that can improve your sleep health:
  • Be consistent. Go to bed at the same time each night and get up at the same time each morning, including on the weekends.
  • Make sure your bedroom is quiet, dark, relaxing, and at a comfortable temperature.
  • Remove electronic devices, such as TVs, computers, and smart phones, from the bedroom.
  • Avoid large meals, caffeine, and alcohol before bedtime.
  • Avoid tobacco/nicotine.
  • Get some exercise. Being physically active during the day can help you fall asleep more easily at night..."
    Sleep

Women and Hemophilia

"Women Can Have Hemophilia, Too

Learn how hemophilia is passed in families, and read Shellye’s inspirational story about her journey toward a diagnosis and treatment plan for hemophilia.
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder primarily affecting males—but females can also have hemophilia. Learn how hemophilia is passed in families, and read Shellye’s inspirational story about her journey toward a diagnosis and treatment plan for hemophilia.

What is hemophilia?

Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. It is caused by a lack of clotting factor proteins in the blood. As a result, people with hemophilia may experience excessive and longer-than-usual bleeding after physical injury or trauma, but they can also experience bleeding without injury or any obvious trigger. People with hemophilia can use treatments called clotting factor concentrates (also known as “factor”) to replace the missing clotting factor proteins in their blood to stop bleeding. This is typically done by injecting factor into a person’s vein. Often, the best choice for good, quality medical care for people with hemophilia is from a comprehensive hemophilia treatment center (HTC). Find an HTC near you.

What causes hemophilia?

Hemophilia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes that provides instructions within cells for making clotting factor proteins in the blood. This mutation results in hemophilia by preventing the clotting factor protein from working properly or causing it to be missing altogether. These genes are located on the X chromosome. Males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY) and females have two X chromosomes (XX). A male inherits his X chromosome from his mother and his Y chromosome from his father. A females inherits one X chromosome from each parent. A male can have hemophilia if he inherits an affected X chromosome (an X chromosome with a mutation in the gene that causes hemophilia) from his mother.

Hemophilia can affect women, too

Females can also have hemophilia, but it is much rarer. When a female has hemophilia, both X chromosomes are affected or one is affected and the other is missing or non-functioning. In these females, bleeding symptoms can be similar to males with hemophilia. When a female has one affected X chromosome, she is a “carrier” of hemophilia. Being a female carrier of hemophilia is not the same as having hemophilia, although female carriers may experience symptoms of hemophilia. A female carrier can also pass the affected X chromosome on to her children..."
Hemophilia

Brain Safety Starts with You

"March is Brain Injury Awareness Month. Learn how you can help prevent TBIs, including concussion.
Traumatic brain injuries, also known as TBIs, affect the lives of Americans nationwide. While anyone can experience a TBI, data show that children and older adults (age 65 and older) are at greater risk. Many TBIs, including concussions, are preventable—and you can help

Change Your Mind about Brain Injury

A TBI is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. The severity of a TBI may range from “mild” to “severe,” and can change the way you think, act, move, and feel. In 2013, falls accounted for almost half (47 percent) of all TBI-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Other common causes include being struck by or against an object (such as colliding with another person) and motor vehicle crashes. Learning what can cause brain injuries and how to avoid them is important and can protect persons from TBIs and their potentially devastating effects.

TBI in Children

This year, in support of Brain Injury Awareness Month, CDC released new information about sports- and recreation-related TBIs. A new report captured information from more than 2 million emergency department (ED) visits for sports- and recreation-related TBIs. Researchers found that activities that contributed to the highest number of these ED visits were football, bicycling, basketball, playground activities, and soccer.

TBI in Older Adults

Falls are the leading cause of all TBIs, and adults aged 75 and older have the highest rates of TBI-related hospitalization and death. CDC’s Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries, or STEADI initiative, is a toolkit designed to help healthcare providers incorporate fall risk assessment and individualized fall prevention interventions—such as strength and balance exercises and medication management—into their practices. Fall prevention brochures and resources for older adults and their caregivers are available here..."
Brain safety

Thursday, March 14, 2019

The Special Counsel’s Report: Can Congress Get It?

"Recent media reports suggest that Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller III is close to concluding his investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 election. As discussed in this separate Sidebar, Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations require the Special Counsel to deliver a confidential report (Special Counsel report) to Attorney General William Barr at the conclusion of the investigation, and the Attorney General must then notify Congress with “an explanation” for the investigation’s termination. But there appears to be no requirement in statute or regulation obligating the Attorney General to share the full Special Counsel report with Congress, and Mr. Barr has indicated that legal considerations might require him to withhold some or all of it. In response, some Members of Congress have suggested that a subpoena may be issued to compel disclosure of the full report.

Should the Attorney General withhold portions of the Special Counsel report and, potentially, resist a congressional subpoena seeking disclosure, the decision would likely stem, at least in part, from two legal limitations that restrict the release of information about federal criminal investigations: (1) Federal Ruleof Criminal Procedure 6(e) (Rule 6(e)), which, among other things, prohibits an attorney for the government from disclosing “a matter occurring before the grand jury”; and (2) “executive privilege,” which potentially insulates certain information from disclosure to protect executive branch confidentiality interests. The legal considerations that could impact the Attorney General’s decision to withhold specific information from Congress may vary depending on the particular nature and context of the requested information and any subpoena. However, these two doctrines would appear most likely to inform not only the Attorney General’s decision, but also any potential judicial consideration of the question if an impasse between Congress and the executive branch over the Special Counsel report were eventually to make its Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov LSB10271 Congressional Research Service 2 way to court. The federal judiciary has generally sought to avoid adjudicating disputes between the executive and legislative branches when possible, instead encouraging the branches to settle their differences through a process of negotiation and accommodation. However, the House has previously been successful in using the courts to enforce a congressional subpoena issued to the Attorney General, though the context-specific nature of judicial rulings in this field means that a similar result might not be guaranteed in every case where Congress seeks executive branch records. Nevertheless, while both limits on information sharing are subject to multiple variables and little judicial guidance, in both cases, exceptions exist that may provide Congress with an avenue to obtain at least some protected material..."
Special Counsel's Report

Monday, March 11, 2019

New CRS Content Now Online

"Less than half a year ago, I announed that the Library of Congress is providing Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports to the public for the first time. Since the launch of the CRS reports website, crsreports.congress.gov, the Library has made available all new or updated reports. Created for Congress by experts in CRS, the reports present a legislative perspective on the full range of topics before the U.S. Congress. The reports are written to be timely, nonpartisan, authoritative and objective.
 
Since launching, we’ve added hundreds of new reports and are working hard to include the back catalog of older CRS reports – a process that is expected to be complete later this month. Today, you can access more than 2,300 reports on topics ranging from the Small Business Administration to farm policy. 
 
Starting this week, the Library is making additional product types available on the site. The site now includes In Focus products, which are two-page executive level briefing documents on a range of policy issues. For example, recent topics include military medical malpractice and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant. Another newly-added product type is the Insight, which provides short-form analysis on fast moving or more focused issues. Examples of topics include volcano early warning systems and Congressional Member Organizations. Users can filter by product type using the faceted search on the left hand of the search results page..."

Congressional Research Service